Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) 

"Glimpses  of  Indian  Space  Programme"

  

India Space Program

   
Indian National Satellite System (INSAT)
 

Indian Remote Sensing Satellite System (IRS)

    
Rohini Sounding Rockets
  

Chandrayaan-1

Space Centers in India
    
Text: Government of Indian established the Department of Space in 1972 to promote development and application for space science and technology for socio-economic benefits.  Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is the primary agency under the Department of Space for executing space programmes.  India undertook demonstration of space applications for communication, broadcasting and remote sensing; designed and built experimental satellites and experimental Satellite Launch Vehicles. Today, India has established space systems that form an important element of the national infrastructure.  India successfully sent its Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft to the Moon in November 2008 and became the fourth individual country to send a probe to the lunar surface.
 
Commissioned in 1983, INSAT is a multipurpose satellite system for telecommunications, television broadcasting, meteorology, disaster warning, and search & rescue. Besides telecommunications and regular broadcasting services, INSAT is widely used for interactive education, developmental communication and telemedicine. Meteorological imaging and direct-to-community broadcast capabilities of INSAT help in issuing warnings on impending cyclones. INSAT also carries transponders dedicated to search and rescue oeprations as part of international COSPAS/SARSAT Programme.
  
Commissioned in 1988, India now has the world's largest constellation of remote sensing satellites. The system offers space-based data in a range of spectral bands, spatial resolutions and swaths. The data is used for several applicatinos covering agriculture, water resources, urban development, mineral prospecting, environment, forestry, drought and flood forecasting, ocean resources and disaster management.
 
Space capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-1) is a 550kg capsule that demonstrated a host of technologies for orbiting a capsule to perform experiments in microgravity conditions of space, and after completion of the experiments, de-orbit and recover the capsule. All these form the basis for reusable launch vehicles. SRE-1 was launched on January 10, 2007 by PSLV-C7 and twelve days later was successfully recovered over Bay of Bengal.
 
India has developed and commissioned Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and Geosynchronous Satellite Lanuch Vehicle (GSLV). PSLV can launch 1700kg class remote sensing satellites into a 620km polar Sun Synchronous Orbit. It can aso place a satellite weighing about 1150kg class stellie in Low Earth Orbit. GSLV is capable of launching 2000kg class satellites into GTO. GSLV Mark-IIIm to place 4000kg class satelliets in GTO, is under development.
 
India has flown Gammy-Ray and Retarding Potential Analyser payloads on two of its Stretched Rohini Satellites launched in 1992 and 1994. IRS-P3, launched in 1996, carried an X-Ray astronomy payload. Chandrayaan-1, India's first spacecraft mission to the Moon, was successfully launched by PSLV-C11 on October 22, 2008 into an Earth orbit. Carrying 11 payloads built in India and abroad, the spacecraft later reached the Moon and went into an orbit around it with the help of its Liquid Apogee Motor. After reaching its final operational orbit of 100km height from the lunar surface, the spacecraft's Moon Impact Prove separated and successfully reached the lunar surface 25 minutes later, carrying Indian tricolous with it on November 14, 2008. During its active life, Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft found the presence of water molecules on the moon.
 
International cooperation has been the hallmark of Indian space programme. India participates in major space fora including the UN, IAF, COSPAR and CEOS. India has set up the Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and the Pacific (CSSTE-AP) which is sponsored by the United Nations. India offers training in space applicatinos to personnel from developing countries under the programme Sharing of Experience in Space (SHARES). Chandrayaan-1, an unmanned spacecraft built by ISRO for exploring the Moon, carried 11 scientific instruments from India, the USA, the European Space Agency, and Bulgaria.