National Monuments, Memorials & Landmarks

  
 
NATIONAL MONUMENTS
There are currently 121 protected areas known as National Monuments in 27 US states , DC, and 3 US territories. They are government property, overseen by: the National Park Service, Forestry Service, Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Management, Department of Energy, Armed Forces Retirement Home, Bureau of Reclamation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the National Trust for Historic Preservation. 

The first National Monument, declared by Teddy Roosevelt, was Devil's Tower. The most famous is probably the Statue of Liberty. Sixteen presidents have created national monuments since power to create them generated from the Antiquities Act of 1906. Bill Clinton has created the most monuments (19).  

There are no space-related National Monuments. Click here for a complete list of National Monuments.

 
 
NATIONAL MEMORIALS
There are currently 34 National Memorials in 14 states, DC and one US territory. They are protected areas that memorialize a particular person, group, or event (mostly presidents and wars). National memorials are authorized by the US Congress, and overseen by or affiliated with the National Park Service. 

The first was the Washington Monument, completed in 1884 and transferred to the NPS in 1933. NMs, like NHLs, are also automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

There is ONE space-related National Memorial, created in 1991 and later designated by Congress as official, though privately funded. Click here for a complete list of National Memorials.

(Apollo 1, Challenger, and Columbia memorials in Alabama, California, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, Oklahoma, Texas, Virginia, and Washington were privately subsidized, bestowed by non-profit organizations, or approved as local civic honors.)

 
 
NATIONAL LANDMARKS
There are currently 2,500+ National Historic Landmarks across all 50 states, DC, all US territories and associated political states, and one on foreign soil (in Morocco). They can be of public or private property, overseen by the National Park Service. The United States National Historic Landmark Program, run by the Department of the Interior and formally created in 1960, is designed to recognize and honor the nation's cultural heritage. 

All "NHLs" are also included on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), a list of 80,000 historic properties. However, NHLs and NRHPs differ in that the former are determined to have country-wide significance and the latter are deemed significant at the local or state level. 

Click here for a complete list of National Historic Landmarks.

  

There are 35 space-related National Historic Landmarks:

 
  
ALABAMA: HUNTSVILLE
Neutral Buoyancy Space Simulator
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
October 3, 1985
3439′07″N 8640′41″W
FLORIDA: CAPE CANAVERAL
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Department of Defense Space Launch Facility
April 16, 1984
28.488889N 80.577778W
OHIO: CINCINNATI
Cincinnati Observatory
Original building atop Mt. Lookout
December 9, 1997
3489 Observatory Place, Cincinnati, OH 45208
     
ALABAMA: HUNTSVILLE
Rocket Propulsion & Structural Test Facility 
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
October 3, 1985

3437′25″N 8639′31″W
ILLINOIS: CHICAGO
Adler Planetarium
(1st & oldest in western hemisphere)
February 27, 1987
E Solidarity Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 
OHIO: CLEVELAND
Zero Gravity Research Facility
October 3, 1985
w Hangar Road Cleveland, OH 44135 
   
ALABAMA: HUNTSVILLE
Redstone Rocket Test Stand 
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
October 3, 1985

3437′51″N 8640′00″W
ILLINOIS: CHICAGO
Arthur H. Compton House
(Nobel Prize Physicist, Compton Effect)
May 11, 1976 
5637 S Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637
OHIO: SANDUSKY
Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility
NASA Glenn Research Center
October 3, 1985 
North Magazine Road Sandusky, OH 44870
ALABAMA: HUNTSVILLE
Saturn V Dynamic Test Stand
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
October 3, 1985
3437′45″N 8639′40″W
ILLINOIS: URBANA
Astronomical Observatory 
University Of Illinois 
December 20, 1989
1450 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801
TEXAS: HOUSTON
Apollo Mission Control Center 
NASA Johnson Space Center
October 3, 1985
Delta Link JSC, Houston, TX 77058
   
ALABAMA: HUNTSVILLE
Saturn V Dynamic Test Launch Vehicle
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
February 10, 1987
3442′30″N 8639′21″W
MARYLAND: GREENBELT
Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility
NASA Goddard Research Center
October 3, 1985
10476 Good Luck Rd Glenn Dale, MD 20769
TEXAS: HOUSTON
Space Environment Simulation Laboratory
NASA Johnson Space Center
October 3, 1985
Avenue C, JSC, Houston, TX 77058
ARIZONA: FLAGSTAFF
Lowell Observatory
(Where Pluto was discovered)
December 21, 1965
1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ, 86001
MASSACHUSETTS: AUBURN
First liquid-fueled Rocket Launch Site 
Robert H. Goddard Family Farm
November 13, 1966
Stonebridge Road, Auburn, MA 01501
VERMONT: NORTH SPRINGFIELD
Stellafane Observatory
Springfield Telescope Makers, Inc.
December 20, 1989 
211 Jordan Road, Springfield, VT 05156
CALIFORNIA: FORT IRWIN
Pioneer Deep Space Station
(Goldstone / Mojave)
October 3, 1985
3523′15″N 11651′22″W
NEW JERSEY: PRINCETON
Albert Einstein House
Theory of Relativity Dude
July 1, 1976
112 Mercer Street in Princeton, NJ
VIRGINIA: HAMPTON
Lunar Landing Research Facility
NASA Langley Research Center
October 3, 1985
W Bush Road, Hampton, VA 23681 
   
CALIFORNIA: LOMPOC
Space Launch Complex 10
Vandenberg Air Force Base
June 3, 1986
3445′55″N 12037′20″W
NEW JERSEY: HOLMDEL
Horn Antenna 
(Big Bang Confirmation/microwave radiation discovery)
May 30, 1974 
40.390752N 74.184859W
VIRGINIA: HAMPTON
Rendezvous Docking Simulator 
NASA Langley Research Center
October 3, 1985
Building 1244, Ames Road, Hampton, VA 23666 
   
CALIFORNIA: LOS ANGELES
Hale Solar Observatory
(Workshop of George E. Hale)
December 20, 1989
740 Holladay Road, Pasadena, CA 91106
NEW MEXICO: LOS ALAMOS
Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory
Site of Manhattan Project
December 21, 1965
4200 W Jemez Road, Los Alamos, NM
WASHINGTON D.C.
Old Naval Observatory
(Only one closed to the public)
January 12, 1965 
23rd Street and E Street NW Washington DC
   
CALIFORNIA: LOS ANGELES
Space Flight Operations Facility
NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
October 3, 1985
Building 230, DSN Road, La Caada Flintridge, CA
NEW MEXICO: DONA ANA
White Sands V-2 Launching Site
White Sands Missile Range
October 3, 1985 
32.399378N 106.377814W
WEST VIRGINIA: GREEN BANK
Reber Radio Telescope
First parabolic radio telescope
December 20, 1989 
W Virginia 92, Monongahela National Forest
CALIFORNIA: LOS ANGELES
Twenty-Five-Foot Space Simulator 
NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
October 3, 1985
Surveyor Road, La Caada Flintridge, CA 91011
NEW YORK: HASTINGS-ON-HUDSON
John W. Draper House & Observatory
First Astrophotographer to record Moon surface
May 15, 1975 
40.9901N 73.8801W 
    
CALIFORNIA: MOUNTAIN VIEW
Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel
NASA Ames Research Center
October 3, 1985
C Lane & Durand Road, Moffett Field, CA
NEW YORK: POUGHKEEPSIE
Vassar College Observatory
Workplace of pioneer astronomer Maria Mitchell
July 17, 1991 
41.6875N 73.893611W
CALIFORNIA: SAN MARINO
Edwin Hubble House 
(Founder of Extra-galactic astronomy)
December 8, 1976
1340 Woodstock Road, San Marino, CA 91108
 
 
There are NO space or science-related landmarks in:
Alaska, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin or Wyoming.